Often the thought of Harmful Sexual Behaviour (HSB) can be unsettling and professionals can worry about how best to approach the subject or deal with emerging issues demonstrated by the young people they work with. One of the common issues people can have is that they struggle to identify which sexual behaviours are potentially harmful and which might represent healthy sexual development.
Here’s a quick guide to responding to an incident;
Harmful Sexual Behaviours (HSB) are defined as; Sexual behaviours expressed by children and young people under the age of 18 years old that are developmentally inappropriate, may be harmful towards self or others, or be abusive towards another child, young person or adult.
It’s important to remember that sexualised behaviours occur on a continuum from normal to inappropriate, problematic, abusive and violent and that to ensure consistency in responding to an incident is taken, a standardised approach should be used to identify where the behaviour sits on this continuum. Further information is available on the CYSCP Tools webpage.
It’s important that incidents of HSB are not ignored and that they are responded to in a timely and consistent manner. Early intervention in cases of harmful sexual behaviour can enable young people to adopt a healthy development pathways and proceed to make healthy relationships.
Taking decisive steps to respond to HSB helps to;
If concerns around HSB are identified by a professional or a disclosure of potential HSB is made to a professional then in the first instance you should check the information on the CYSCP Tools webpage.
The Youth Justice Service can offer advice and guidance if you have concerns around potential Harmful Sexual behaviour. The Youth Justice Service can be contacted during office hours on our duty number – 01904 554565. They do not provide an out of hours service. If you have safeguarding concerns whereby you consider a child is at risk, you must contact the MASH immediately.
If there is concern that a child, young person or an adult might have been harmed by the behaviour of the child or young person then the behaviour should be reported to the Police if it has not already been done so. Allegations of peer abuse should be taken as seriously as allegations of abuse perpetrated by an adult. In cases of peer on abuse both young people will need to be considered and allocated separate Social Workers.
The Harmful Sexual Behaviour Support Service, run by SWGfL in partnership with the Marie Collins Foundation, is now available to safeguarding professionals across England and provides the tools to equip and empower practitioners to address the alarming normalisation of harmful sexual behaviour in children and young people.
The telephone and email support, which is funded by the Home Office and developed in collaboration with the Department for Education, is available Monday – Friday, 8am to 8pm.
Call: 0344 255 0623 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How will it support you?
The Harmful Sexual Behaviour Support Service is for education and safeguarding professionals and will provide:
Why act now?
The service has been established in response to the 2021 Ofsted review, which revealed a prevalence of child-on-child sexual harassment and abuse so widespread that, for some children, incidents are ‘so commonplace that they see no point in reporting them’ and ‘consider them normal’.
What is Harmful Sexual Behaviour?
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behaviour which is displayed by children and young people (under the age of 18) and which may be harmful or abusive. It can be displayed towards younger children, peers, older children or adults. It can be harmful to the children and young people who display it, as well as those it is directed towards.
A lot depends on whether there is going to be a police investigation or prosecution. If there is, then the young person will be supported through the process and the Youth Justice Service will ensure that any identified HSB will be assessed and appropriate intervention delivered at the earliest opportunity. However where it is concluded it is either not in the public interest to do so or there is insufficient evidence to charge then there remains the need to address the identified HSB though targeted HSB intervention.
In April 2019 the Youth Justice Service (YJS) launched a Harmful Sexual Behaviour (HSB) Service seeking to provide intervention work with young people around identified HSB concerns that had not resulted in ongoing police investigation or prosecution.
The Youth Justice Service has the opportunity to engage with children and young people displaying these behaviours with the aim of preventing offending and reducing re-offending. Using identification, assessment and intervention tools such as AIM3, the primary objective of Youth Justice Service intervention remains at all times the protection of victims, potential victims and the avoidance of any repetition of inappropriate or harmful behaviour. Government findings indicate that those young people offered early intervention benefit from the child centred approach of youth justice practitioners and their chances of rehabilitation improve. Such intervention can enable young people to adopt a healthy development pathway and proceed to make healthy future relationships.
The Youth Justice Service currently only take referrals for the HSB service directly from Children’s Social Care. The following information will be required on the referral before it is accepted by the Youth Justice Service.
Written consent from the young person and parents/ carers for the referral to the Youth Justice Service HSB Service will be required. Referral forms are available upon contacting the Youth Justice Service on 01904 554565 and completed referrals should be emailed to email@example.com.
The CYSCP are now providing Multi-Agency training in Harmful Sexual Behaviour. More information about the 'Developing an Understanding of Harmful Sexual Behaviour' is available on the Multi-Agency Training page.
For further information and guidance please look at the CYSCP HSB Procedure. This is available on the CYSCP Procedures webpage and also on the right hand tool bar of this webpage.
A useful One Minute Guide has been produced for professionals which can easily be downloaded.
Ross Holden from the Youth Justice Service has produced a presentation regarding HSB. This was also delivered at the CYSCP Learning Masterclass Event in June 2021 which contains useful information in relation to Harmful Sexual Behaviour.
**Please note this will download as a presentation on your PC. Once in Powerpoint you will need to click on Slide Show and play from start to listen to the recorded version**
Peer-on-peer sexual abuse is sexual abuse that happens between children of a similar age or stage of development. It can happen between any number of children, and can affect any age group (Department for Education (DfE), 2018). The NSPCC website has further information regarding this.
Removing a child or young person's imagine online - Report Remove - A tool that works to help young people get nude images or videos removed from the internet has been launched the NSPCC’s Childline service and the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF). Further information is available on the Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation webpage.“‘TA-HSB’ refers to one or more children engaging in sexual discussions or acts - using the internet and / or any image-creating / sharing or communication device -which is considered inappropriate and / or harmful given their age or stage of development.” (Hollis & Belton, 2017)
Children and young people with harmful sexual behaviours Simon Hackett Research in Pratcice
Belton, E. and Hollis, V. (2016) A review of the research on children and young people who display harmful sexual behaviour online: what is developmentally appropriate online sexual behaviour, do children and young people with online versus offline harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) differ, and is there an association between online and offline HSB? London: NSPCC
Hollis, V. and Belton, E. (2017) Children and young people who engage in technology-assisted harmful sexual behaviour; a study of their behaviours, backgrounds and characteristics. London: NSPCC
That Difficult Age: Developing a more effective response to risks in adolescence: Evidence Scope (2015) Hanson E, Holmes D https://www.rip.org.uk/resources/publications/evidence-scopes/that-difficult-age-developing-a-more-effective-response-to-risks-in-adolescence-evidence-scope-2015
“Everyone deserves to be happy and safe” A mixed methods study exploring how online and offline child sexual abuse impact young people and how professionals respond to it Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis Elly Hanson Helen Whittle Anthony Beec.h November 2017
Government guidance sexting in schools and colleges
Hackett, S, Branigan, P and Holmes, D (2019). Harmful sexual behaviour framework: an evidence-informed operational framework for children and young people displaying harmful sexual behaviours, second edition, London, NSPCC.
Harmful sexual behaviour in schools: a briefing on the findings, implications and resources for schools and multi-agency partners Jenny Lloyd, Joanne Walker and Vanessa Bradbury June 2020
Completing the Harmful sexual behaviour framework audit tool. A guide for designated safeguarding leads in health